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2018年12月英语六级仔细阅读第二篇解析

2018-12-20 11:47:37 来源:新东方在线

2018年12月英语六级真题及答案大汇总
题型

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  lAs smartphones have proliferated, so have questions about their impact on how we live and how we work. Often the advantages of convenient, mobile technology are both obvious and taken for granted, leaving more subtle topics for concerned discussion: Are smartphones disturbing children's sleep? Is an inability to get away from work having a negative impact on health? And what are the implications for privacy?

  51. What does the author say about the negative impact of smartphones?

  A. It has been overshadowed bythepositive impact.

  B. It has more often than not been taken for granted.

  C. It is not so obvious but has caused some concern.

  D. It is subtle but should by no means be overstated.

  解析:利用顺序原则和关键词(negativeimpact)定位,定位至第三段第二句。移动手机带来的便利这个好处是明显的而且被认为理所当然,留下一些微妙的(负面)话题引发了相关讨论。因此答案选择C。

  mBut today, on the 10th anniversary of the iPhone, let's take a moment to consider a less obvious advantage: the potential for smartphone technology to revolutionize behavioral science. That's because, for the first time in human history, a large proportion of the species is in continuous contact with technology that can record key features of an individual's behavior and environment. To quote a recent article published in Perspectives in Psychological Science: "Psychology has a great deal of data on what people believe they do... but little data on what people actually do."

  52. What is considered a less obvious advantaged of smartphone technology?

  A. It systematically records real human interactions.

  B. It helps people benefit from technological advances.

  C. It brings people into closer contact with each other.

  D. It greatly improves research on human behavior.

  解析:根据顺序原则和关键词(less obvious)定位至第四段第一句。智能手机科技改革了行为科学的研究。因此答案选择D。

  nResearchers have already begun to use smartphones in social scientific research, either to query people regularly as they engage in their normal lives or to record activity using the device's built-in sensors. These studies are confirming, challenging and extending what's been found using more traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks.

  53. What characterizes traditional psychological research?

  A. It is based on huge amounts of carefully collected data.

  B. It relies on lab observations and participants’ reports.

  C) It makes use of the questionnaire method.

  D) It is often expensive and time-consuming.

  解析:根据关键词 traditional psychological research 定位到第五段“…traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks. ”,非限制性定语从句in which后面修饰的即traditional approach,指人们报告自己在实际生活中的做法和在实验室中简单而虚拟的实验室任务,因此答案选择B。

  qThese studies are just first steps. As more data are collected and methods for analysis improve, researchers will be in a better position to identify how different experiences, behaviors and environments relate to each other and evolve over time, with the potential to improve people's productivity and wellbeing in a variety of domains. Beyond revealing population-wide patterns, the right combination of data and analysis can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior, including conditions that could indicate the need for some form of intervention — such as an uptick in behaviors that signal a period of depression.

  54. How will future psychological studies benefit individuals?

  A) By helping them pin down their unusual behaviors.

  B) By helping them maintain a positive state of mind.

  C) By helping them live their lives in a unique way.

  D) By helping them cope with abnormal situations.

  解析:根据问题关键词“future psychological studies benefit individuals”定位到原文第八段第三句“…can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior…”,即帮助个人确认他们行为不寻常的特征。故选择A。

  rSmartphone-based data collection comes at an opportune time in the evolution of psychological science. Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations studied with more diverse groups of people. Smartphones offer new tools for achieving these ambitions, offering rich data about everyday behaviors in a variety of contexts.

  55. What do we learn about current psychological studies?

  A) They are going through a period of painful transition.

  B) They are increasingly focused on real-life situations.

  C) They are conducted in a more rigorous manner.

  D) They are mainly targeted towards undergraduates.

  解析:根据关键词“current psychological studies” 定位到第九段第二句“Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations …”,现在心理学研究正从实验室研究转向更复杂的真实世界情境里。故此选择B。

  长篇阅读解析

  Section B

  Resilience Is About How You recharge, Not How You Endure

  [A] As constant travelers and parents of a 2-year-old, we sometimes fantasize about how much work we can do when one of us gets on a plane, undistracted by phones, friends, or movies. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done. Even worse, after refreshing our email or reading the same studies over and over, we are too exhausted when we land to soldier on with(继续处理) the emails that have inevitably still piled up.

  [B] Why should flying deplete us? We’re just sitting there doing nothing. Why can’t we be tougher — more resilient(有复原力的) and determined in our work so we can accomplish all of the goals we set for ourselves? Based on our current research, we have come to realize that the problem is not our hectic schedule or the plane travel itself; the problem comes from a misunderstanding of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.

  [C] We often take a militaristic, “tough” approach to resilience and determination like a Marine pulling himself through the mud, a boxer going one more round, or a football player picking himself up off the ground for one more play. We believe that longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. However, this entire conception is scientifically inaccurate.

  [D] The very lack of a recovery period is dramatically holding back our collective ability to be resilient and successful. Research has found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems. And lack of recovery — whether by disrupting sleep with thoughts of work or having continuous cognitive arousal by watching our phones — is costing our companies $62 billion a year in lost productivity.

  [E] And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering. We “stop” work sometimes at 5PM, but then we spend the night wrestling with solutions to work problems, talking about our work over dinner, and falling asleep thinking about how much work we’ll do tomorrow. In a study just released, researchers from Norway found that 7.8% of Norwegians have become workaholics(工作狂). The scientists cite a definition of “workaholism” as “being overly concerned about work, driven by an uncontrollable work motivation, and investing so much time and effort to work that it impairs other important life areas.”

  [F] We believe that the number of people who fit that definition includes the majority of American workers, including those who read HBR, which prompted us to begin a study of workaholism in the U.S. Our study will use a large corporate dataset from a major medical company to examine how technology extends our working hours and thus interferes with necessary cognitive recovery, resulting in huge health care costs and turnover costs for employers.

  [G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age. Parents trying to teach their children resilience might celebrate a high school student staying up until 3AM to finish a science fair project. What a distortion of resilience! A resilient child is a well-rested one. When an exhausted student goes to school, he risks hurting everyone on the road with his impaired driving; he doesn’t have the cognitive resources to do well on his English test; he has lower self-control with his friends; and at home, he is moody with his parents. Overwork and exhaustion are the opposite of resilience. And the bad habits we learn when we’re young only magnify when we hit the workforce.

  [H] As Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz have written, if you have too much time in the performance zone, you need more time in the recovery zone, otherwise you risk burnout. Mustering your resources to “try hard” requires burning energy in order to overcome your currently low arousal level. This is called upregulation. It also exacerbates exhaustion. Thus the more imbalanced we become due to overworking, the more value there is in activities that allow us to return to a state of balance. The value of a recovery period rises in proportion to the amount of work required of us.

  [I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that if you stop doing a task like answering emails or writing a paper, that your brain will naturally recover, such that when you start again later in the day or the next morning, you’ll have your energy back. But surely everyone reading this has had times where you lie in bed for hours, unable to fall asleep because your brain is thinking about work. If you lie in bed for eight hours, you may have rested, but you can still feel exhausted the next day. That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing. Stopping does not equal recovering.

  [J] If you’re trying to build resilience at work, you need adequate internal and external recovery periods. As researchers Zijlstra, Cropley and Rydstedt write in their 2014 paper: “Internal recovery refers to the shorter periods of relaxation that take place within the frames of the workday or the work setting in the form of short scheduled or unscheduled breaks, by shifting attention or changing to other work tasks when the mental or physical resources required for the initial task are temporarily depleted or exhausted. External recovery refers to actions that take place outside of work—e.g. in the free time between the workdays, and during weekends, holidays or vacations.” If after work you lie around on your bed and get riled up by political commentary on your phone or get stressed thinking about decisions about how to renovate your home, your brain has not received a break from high mental arousal states. Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.

  [K] If you really want to build resilience, you can start by strategically stopping. Give yourself the resources to be tough by creating internal and external recovery periods. Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking. She suggests downloading the Instant or Moment apps to see how many times you turn on your phone each day. You can also use apps like Offtime or Unpludded to create tech free zones by strategically scheduling automatic airplane modes. The average person turns on their phone 150 times every day. If every distraction took only 1 minute, that would account for 2.5 hours a day.

  [L] In addition, you can take a cognitive break every 90 minutes to charge your batteries. Try to not have lunch at your desk, but instead spend time outside or with your friends —not talking about work. Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.

  [M] As for us, we’ve started using our plane time as a work-free zone, and thus time to dip into the recovery phrase. The results have been fantastic. We are usually tired already by the time we get on a plane, and the crowed space and unstable internet connection make work more challenging. Now, instead of swimming upstream, we relax, sleep, watch movies, or listen to music. And when we get off the plane, instead of being depleted, we feel recovered and ready to return to the performance zone.

  DJLAE KIBGC

  It has been found that inadequate recovery often leads to poor health and accidents.

  解析:[D] … Research has found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems.Mental relaxation is much needed, just as physical relaxation is.

  解析:[J]…… Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.Adequate rest not only helps one recover, but also increases oneswork efficiency.

  解析:[L]…… Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.

  39.The author always has a hectic time before taking a flight.

  解析:[A] ……. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done.

  40.Recovery may not take place even if one seems to have stopped working.

  解析:[E] And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering.

  41.It is advised that technology be used to prevent people from overworking.

  解析:[K] …… Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking.

  42.Contrary to popular belief, rest does not equal recovery.

  解析:[I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that…… But surely everyone reading this has had times where you lie in bed for hours,…… That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing. Stopping does not equal recovering.

  The author has come to see that this problem results from a misunderstanding of the meaning of resilience.

  解析:[B]……the problem comes from a misunderstanding of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.

  People’s distorted view about resilience may have developed from their upbringing.

  解析:[G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age.

  People tend to think the more determined they are, the greater their success will be.

  解析:[C] …… We believe that longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. .

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