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SAT阅读快速提升攻克:科学文章

2018-11-06 11:52:21 来源:新东方在线

  对于广大SAT考生来说,如何提升阅读速度一直是困扰着大家的一个问题。毕竟SAT这门考试是针对母语学习者的考试,我们中国人去考SAT就像找一个老外来考中国的高考语文一样。跟美国高中生相比,我们的英文阅读量差了何止十万八千里。

  来源:新东方 刘琼歌

  那么,在缺乏语言环境、阅读量不足、词汇量也不足的情况下,如何提升阅读速度呢?其关键就在于要学会略读。关于略读的方法,如果时间有限,我的答案通常是这样的:

  “阅读信息大体可以分为叙述、评述、概述三类,也就是叙述说明、态度评价和总结概括三类信息,我们可以略读的是叙述性信息,需要精读的是评述和概述类信息。”

  我相信听完这句话的同学还是一头雾水。在此以科学类文章为例给大家演示一下。对于中国学生来说,一篇科学类文章比较理想的做题时间应该是9~11分钟,其中读文章3-4分钟,做题6-7分钟。今年暑假班上我有一个美高的学生可以7分钟做完一篇科学类文章,错题0~1个,出乎我的意料,我原以为9分钟就已经够快了。这告诉我们,不要给自己设限,运动员都能不断打破记录,我们也可以的!

  1

  专业术语用首字母代替,读句子时略读专有名词看逻辑

  SAT科学类文章涉及生物、地质、天文、物理和认知等话题,大部分都来自科普杂志和学术专著,以介绍最新的科研成果为主,所以文中肯定会有学科专业知识,但是SAT考试其实并不要求我们具备这些专业知识背景,它的考点集中于逻辑理解,所以我们要学会忽略专业词汇看逻辑。比如:

  [例1]:

  Pyrethrums are a group of flowering plants which include Chrysanthemum coccineum, Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, Chrysanthemum marschalli, and related species. These plants produce potent insecticides with anti-mite activity. (来自OG Test 3第5篇)

  在这段话里,Pyrethrums不需要记整个词,用前两个字母代替就可以了。我们只需要知道Py-是一种植物,有anti-mite的效果就可以了。句中“which include Chrysanthemum coccineum, Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, Chrysanthemum marschalli, and related species.”这部分含有很多拉丁学名,但这不是考点,可以直接略过。

  2

  略读研究者的身份信息和机构信息

  SAT考察的科学类文章通常是科普杂志的记者或编辑写的,他们读了最近的学术论文,再以通俗易懂的方式转述给普通读者看。同时,这类文章因为是作者转述的,一般都会有研究者(researchers who conducted the research)和同行评价(peer review)出现,所以读文章时圈名字很重要。此外,这些科学家的名字后面通常都跟着一串身份机构信息,这部分不是考点,我们可以直接跳过。例如:

  [例2]:

  John Ralph and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center detected lignin in C.cheilosporioides. (来自2017.5亚太真题第5篇)

  这句话里“at the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center”这个机构信息可以跳过,只要识别出主干Ralph detected lignin in C. c 就可以了。

  3

  遇到自己熟悉的话题,略读举例、列举、数字等论据或阐释信息

  SAT每次考试有2篇Science和1篇Social Study,这3篇里通常有两篇文章的话题我们是比较熟悉的,这类文章的特点是即使我们不看论据和阐释,也能看懂主旨或论点,所以我们在第一遍速读文章时,可以略过论据和阐释类信息。

第二页继续...

[page]

  1

  精读论点,略读列举或论据

  [例3]:

  The mental consequences of our online info-crunching are not universally bad. Certain cognitive skills are strengthened by our use of computers and the Net. These tend to involve more primitive mental functions, such as hand-eye coordination, reflex response, and the processing of visual cues. One much-cited study of video gaming revealed that after just 10 days of playing action games on computers, a group of young people had significantly boosted the speed with which they could shift their visual focus between various images and tasks. (来自OG Test 2第3篇)

  比如这篇文章,因为我们对电脑和网络很熟悉,所以只看第二句就知道段落论点是什么,后面出现One much-cited study of video gaming revealed that肯定是支持论点的,我们读第一遍时就可以略过。

  2

  精读概述,略读数据部分

  [例4]:

  In the most extensive study of prodigies to date, the psychologist Joanne Ruthsatz and her colleagues administered the Stanford Binet intelligence test to 18 prodigies— five in art, eight in music, and five in math. There was a wide range of IQs in the sample, from 100—the average for the general population—to 147—well above the usual cutoff for “intellectually gifted.”

  在这个句子里,18 prodigies和a wide range of IQs就是概述部分,后面five in art, eight in music, and five in math.和from 100—the average for the general population—to 147属于列举说明,是可以略读的。

  [例5]:

  During the past 8 million years, rates of erosion have varied from less than 0.01 millimeter per year (in central and western Australia and in central North America, for example) to as much as 10 mm/yr (at site in the Himalayas, Taiwan, and New Zealand).

  同样地,在这段话里,0.01 millimeter per year和10 mm/yr这几个数字都不重要,也不需要重点关注,重点是rates of erosion varied这个信息。

  3

  略读已知概念的阐释

  [例6]:

  However, with an average score of 140 (above the 99th percentile), nearly all of the prodigies did extraordinarily well on the tests of working memory. Analogous to the central processing unit of a computer, working memory is a cognitive system responsible for carrying out the mental operations involved in complex tasks such as problem solving and language comprehension. It is what you use when you compute a tip for a dinner check in your head, or when you hold in mind the steps of a complex skill you are trying to learn.

  比如上面这个例子,该段的重点内容是研究发现天才们的工作记忆(短时记忆)很强。如果你知道working memory是什么也能看出Analogous to the central processing unit of a computer, working memory is a cognitive system...这个句子功能是要解释这个概念,那么后面的内容就可以跳过了。

  事实上,一个人的知识面越广,课外阅读量越大,速度就越快,这是因为普通读者需要依靠举例、列举等阐释才能理解的概念他们其实早就知道了,所以平时多积累各种百科知识也是很有帮助的。

  4

  对于不熟悉的话题,参考科学类文章的基本逻辑结构,读段落时判断逻辑结构,略读细节。

  SAT考察的科学类文章大部分都是介绍最新的一项科研成果,其基本逻辑结构是这样的:

  1)Introduce the topic 通过研究话题、趣闻轶事或研究结果引入话题;

  2)research question and significance 研究问题与研究意义;

  3)methodology 研究方法与研究设计(研究对象、研究工具、任务设计);

  4)research process 研究过程;

  5)research result 研究结果;

  6)application and peer review 应用价值与同行评价。

  我们读第一遍时,最重要的是读懂研究问题和研究结果,其余部分只需识别出其段落功能就行了。比如Princeton Review Test 1第5篇的背景介绍是这样的:

  This passage is from Cesar A. Arias, M.D., Ph.D., and Barbara E. Murray, M.D., “Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs in the 21st Century ——A Clinical Super-Challenge.”2009 by New England Journal of Medicine.

第三页...

[page]

  从中可以看出这篇文章的话题是Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs,即病菌对抗生素的抗药性。那么我们来看第一段:

  [例7]:

  In March 1942, a 33-year-old woman lay dying of streptococcal sepsis in a New Haven, Connecticut, hospital, and despite the best efforts of contemporary medical science, her doctors could not eradicate her bloodstream infection. The they managed to obtain a small amount of a newly discovered substance called penicillin, which they cautiously injected into her. After repeated doses, her bloodstream was cleared of streptococci, she made a full recovery, and she went on to live to the age of 90. Sixty-six years after her startling recovery, a report described a 70 year-old-man in San Francisco with endocarditis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). Despite the administration, for many days, of the best antibiotics available for combating VRE, physicians were unable to sterilize the patient’s blood, and he died still bacteremic. We have almost come full circle and arrived at a point as frightening as the preantibiotic era: for patients infected with multi-drug resistant bacteria, there is no magic bullet.

  这个开头段很长,如果全部读完估计要花1分钟。考场上争分夺秒,1分钟也很重要。因为第一段通常是引入话题的,我们从第一句可以看出,这是个过去发生的具体事件,那么中间的叙述部分我们先略过,跳到段尾看一下:for patients infected with multi-drug resistant bacteria, there is no magic bullet(病人如果感染了有多重抗药性的病菌,我们还找不到灵丹妙药)。这句话不就对应了文章标题的Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs吗?所以它的功能就是通过一个事件引入话题,这就够了,SAT基本上也就考到这个层次。

  第一段通常是引入话题的,那么后面的段落通常是干什么的呢?如果要报道一项研究成果,无非是research question, significance, methodology, process, result, explanation, peer review这些。比如:

  [例8]:

  Peacock and his team built a carbon-fiber resin scale model of the Luzon Strait, including the islands and surrounding ocean floor topography. Then they filled the platform with water of varying salinity to replicate the different densities found at the strait, with denser, saltier water below and lighter, less briny water above. Small particles were added to the solution and illuminated with lights from below in order to track how the liquid moved. Finally, they re-created tides using two large plungers to see how the internal waves themselves formed. (来自OG Test 2第5篇)

  这段在第5段,研究问题出现之后,从第一句built a carbon-fiber resin scale model of the Luzon Strait就可以猜出,这段讲的是研究过程,研究方法是建模,再看最后一句they re-created tides还是在讲如何模拟海洋环境,那么中间的细节就可以忽略了。

  再看个例子:

  [例9]:

  Thomas McCord of the Bear Fight Center in Winthrop, Washington, who was not involved in any of the three studies, agrees that the asteroid belt probably hosts some small refugees from the outer solar system, but says there is no reason to believe Ceres is a stranger there. Its ice-to-rock ratio matches the expected composition of the raw materials that would have been available at its current position early on, he says. What’s more, objects of its size are expected to have formed in the inner solar system. New measurements of Cares’s composition by NASA’s Dawn mission, for which McCord is a team member, could help pin down its birthplace. (来自2017.5亚太真题第3篇)

  这是最后一段,由第一句Thomas McCord … who was not involved in any of the three studies就知该段功能是peer review,因为只有peer review才会强调学术背景和未参与本文提到的研究(暗示其评价的客观性)。那么我们读第一遍时,需要知道的是这个peer的名字及态度,后面支持其观点的理由可以先不看,考到了再回来细读。

  如果按照上述方式去略读,80行的文章至少可以减至60行。此外,读文章时还需要注意改掉两个坏习惯,一个是小声读文章,一个是只看不划。

  虽说一目十行不可能,但与一行一行小声读相比,我们的眼睛至少能看到三行,这样就能有意识地跳过不重要的信息,更多地关注句子的逻辑结构。

  另一个问题,就是有些同学反映的,读完跟没读似的,做题时还要回去重读一遍,这其实是因为读的过程中没有划要点。划要点本质上是在逼自己提炼逻辑,不要只停留在字面意思上。

  最后,我想补充一点,这些方法可以让大家在现有的语言基础上相对地提升阅读速度,但如果大家的备考时间充足并且志向高远(目标1500+),该背的单词和该刷的题还是少不了的,SAT考试有一定的技巧性,但本质上体现的还是大家的语言功底。篇幅有限,这次仅以科学类文章为例说一下略读方法,社会类文章的结构跟科学类文章比较相似,可以用类似的方法,希望能帮到各位备考SAT的同学们。

  以上就为大家整理的“SAT阅读快速提升攻克:科学文章”,更多精彩内容,请关注新东方在线SAT频道。


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