资讯
托福 新东方在线网络课堂 > 托福 > 考研报考 > 托福阅读 > 正文

新托福阅读:美索不达米亚和埃及的定居点

2018-03-05 14:59:24 来源:新东方在线

  2018年03月03日最新托福阅读考试有哪些内容呢?新东方在线托福网为大家带来新托福阅读:美索不达米亚和埃及的定居点一文,更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线托福网(http://toefl.koolearn.com)!

  托福阅读考试日期:

  2018年03月03日

  新托福阅读题目回忆版本一

  前三段在讲m的城市,决定市中心的位置和大小主要取决于时候能从别的城市获得食物的能力,因此在市中心人口最多,城市的人口分布不均匀;不同城市之间的间隔是由城墙来区别的;主要的business是手工艺品;后两段讲的是埃及,埃及的城市是均匀分布的,分布在尼罗河附近,大家都有相对均衡的资源来源,不同城市之间不需要有竞争;埃及的主要生意来源是trading and shipping,因为靠着河岸边有很多港口;不同小城市之间不需要由城墙去区分开来,大家生活的都很融洽。

       【难度解析】

        适中

       新托福阅读题目回忆版本二

  On the basis of available evidence, there existed in ancient state-level societies a variety of urban types. These have been classified under a number of different headings, ranging from city-states to territorial- or village-states. Mesopotamia and Egypt, for example, traditionally represent the two opposing extremes along a spectrum of possible settlement distributions and types.

  Mesopotamian city-state systems were made up of densely populated urban areas that shared a common language, status symbols, and economic systems, but their elites tended to compete with each other, often militarily, to control territory, trade routes, and other resources. Each city-state controlled a relatively small territory, often only a few hundred square kilometers, and had its own capital city, which in many cases was enclosed by a wall. In addition to its capital, a city-state might govern a number of smaller centers, as well as numerous farming villages and hamlets. Ancient Sumer is a classic example of such a system.

  In ancient Mesopotamia, urban centers tended to be relatively large, with populations ranging from less than 1,000 to more than 100,000 inhabitants, depending on the ability of a particular city-state to control and collect payments from its neighbors. Often, a considerable number of farmers lived in these centers to secure greater protection for themselves and their possessions. It is estimated that in southern Mesopotamia ( 2900-2350 BC) more than 80 percent of the total population lived in cities.

  These cities also supported craft production, which sought to satisfy the demands of the urban elite and society as a whole. The development of craft specialization and commercial exchanges between town and countryside as well as between neighboring urban centers encouraged the growth of public markets. Although the evidence for actual marketplaces is less than clear for southern Mesopotamia, the remnants of shop-lined streets indicate vigorous commercial activity involving large numbers of people. This activity in turn promoted competition among city-states to obtain supplies of exotic raw materials. As a result of widespread access to goods produced by full-time specialists and the development of more intensive agriculture close to urban centers, Mesopotamian city-states were able to support numerous nonfood producers, possibly as high a proportion as 20 percent of the total population.

  In contrast to Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt's population has traditionally been perceived as more evenly dispersed across the landscape, a characteristic of village-states. Topography and the formation of the early state were the major factors contributing to this dispersal. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had relatively secure and defined borders, allowing a single state to dominate the area. Additionally, the villages and towns of Egypt, all of which were situated near the Nile on the river's narrow flood plain, had approximately equal access to the river and did not have to compete among themselves for water as their contemporaries in Mesopotamia were forced to do. As the main highway through Egypt, the Nile offered innumerable harbors for shipping and trading, so there was no strong locational advantage to be gained in one area as opposed to another; hence the Egyptian population generally remained dispersed throughout the valley and delta in low densities. Trade specialists apparently were evenly spread throughout Egypt, supported by both independent workshops in small towns and royal patronage in the territorial capitals. In contrast to the defensive walls of Mesopotamian city-states, the walls of Egyptian towns primarily defined and delineated sections of the town (for example, a temple precinct from a residential area).

  Egypt, however, was not without urban centers. At points where goods entered the Nile valley via maritime routes or overland routes from the Red Sea via wadis (stream beds that remain dry except during the rainy season), the right circumstances existed for the growth of larger cities. Egyptian cities and towns shared certain characteristics with other contemporary societies but also displayed unique traits influenced by the culture and environment of the Nile valley. Thus, the geopolitical system that evolved in ancient Egypt was different from that of Mesopotamia; Egypt developed a village or territorial state characterized by dispersed settlements of varying size, a form of urbanism that gave Egypt its distinctive identity.

  以上就是新东方在线托福网为你带来的新托福阅读:美索不达米亚和埃及的定居点,更多精彩敬请关注新东方在线托福网(http://toefl.koolearn.com)。

最新文章

相关文章

四级实用 ? 工具

四六级交流?下载

四级课程排行榜本周本月

四级公开课更多>>

全国大学英语四六级考试听力重大调整解析 w 22分01秒
1 全国大学英语四六级考试听力重大调整解析
视频:新东方在线2015年12月四级考试综合点评 w 24分04秒
2 视频:新东方在线2015年12月四级考试综合点评
视频:新东方在线帅健翔2015年12月四级阅读真题解析 w 25分11秒
3 视频:新东方在线帅健翔2015年12月四级阅读真题解析
视频:2015年12月英语四级写作真题解析 w 22分14秒
4 视频:2015年12月英语四级写作真题解析
2015年12月大学英语四级考试模考卷二 w 28分39秒
5 2015年12月大学英语四级考试模考卷二

推荐阅读